Myron W. Krueger | i |
last name: Krueger
first name: Myron W.
birthday: 1942
birth-place: Gary, Indiana (USA)

Myron W. Krueger is a pioneer of interactive computer art and virtual reality. He received a B.A. in Mathematics from Dartmouth College, and a M.S. and a Ph.D. in Computer Science from the University of Wisconsin. He became involved in computer art by assisting a group of artists and technologists in the development of the interactive environment GLOWFLOW, a computer-controlled light sound environment that responded to the people within it.

After the experience with GLOWFLOW, he realized that he had his own personal vision of what computer art “should be like”. Krueger decided to become an artist guided by the principle that “interaction was the sine qua non of computer art.” [Krueger 1985]. Krueger envisioned a universal medium with wide application and culture-defining significance, which he called artificial reality. “In this medium, the computer perceives a participant’s actions and responds in real-time with visual and auditory displays” [Krueger 1985].

Since the 1970s, Krueger produced responsive environments which offered unencumbered, full-body participation in computer-created telecommunication experiences. In 1970 he presented METAPLAY, which combined live video and computer graphic images and projected them in front of the viewer. METAPLAY served as the starting point for Krueger’s best known artificial reality: VIDEOPLACE.

Krueger described VIDEOPLACE as the marriage of two cultural forces, television and the computer, “to produce an expressive medium for communicating playfulness and inviting active participation.” [Krueger 1985]. VIDEOPLACE was an exceptional exploration of the interactive medium. It is considered to be the first human interface to perceive and incorporate the participant’s full body in a shared communication space, where real-time performance and interaction can be experienced.

Krueger’s 1974 dissertation Computer-Controlled Responsive Environments was published in 1983 with the title Artificial Reality. The book presented a novel aesthetic perspective on human-computer interaction. In addition to VIDEOPLACE, it described head-mounted displays, data gloves, embedded training, along with myriad practical applications. It was later updated as Artificial Reality II and republished in 1991.

Krueger’s work has been exhibited in North America, Europe, and Japan, and has had a great influence in interactive computer art. In 1990 Krueger became the first recipient of the Golden NICA from Prix Ars Electronica in the category of interactive art.

He was teacher and researcher at the University of Wisconsin, and on the faculty of computing science of the University of Connecticut from 1974 to 1985. From 1980 to 1984, he was the director of the software company First System Corporation in Los Angeles. Krueger lives in Vernon, Connecticut.

Sources: [Krueger 1985], medien kunst netz, Ars Electronica archive, [Krueger 1991]


1962 – 1964 Study of liberal Arts at the Dartmouth College, New Hampshire
1967 – 1974 Study of computer science at the University of Wisconsin
1974 – 1985 Faculty of the University of Connecticut
1974 – 1978 Researcher at the Space Science and Engineering Center of the University of Wisconsin
1980 – 1984 Director of the software company First System Corporation in Los Angeles
1990 Golden Nica, Ars Electronica, Linz
posted over 9 years ago
Hello - I teach in Art & Design (cultural art history) and am creating a new class this spring 2015: Virtual Reality / Art / Public Space and also curating an exhibition in Fall 2015 called 'The Politics of Public Space' I was familiar with Rapheal Lazano Hemmer's work and I have become fascinated by Myron Kreuger's work and wondered how to get in touch with him? Also i'd be glad to be involved in any community of people working in the area of computer - public art thanks so much Sincerely, Lenore Metrick-Chen
posted about 8 years ago
Hi! I´m Graphic Designer. Actually in postgraduate studies. My dissertation is about Virtual reality and I need to find Artificial reality 1983 or 1991. I live in Argentina and I couldn´t find the book here. Please let me know If you know if this books exist in ebook format to download it. Thank you very much!
posted almost 7 years ago
Dear Myron, I am writing to obtain your permission to publish your artwork in my new book "Singularity Art: How Future Technology Singularity Will Impact Art." Please pass your email address to me and I will give you more detains regarding this matter. Many thanks, LiQin Tan Professor of Art, Rutgers University, New Jersey, USA
posted almost 3 years ago
Hello, I am writing to ask your permission for us to use an excerpt from your book 'Computer Controlled Responsive Environments' for educational purposes. I would appreciate if you could respond to me by email so that I could explain more details about the request. Thank you in advance!
posted over 2 years ago
I am a scholar at the University of Turku, Finland. I am finishing my doctoral research about a phenomenological approach to Media art. I would include one image of works by Myron Krueger. How can I obtain one image in high resolution for the publication of my PhD? Is there a copyright to pay? Is this the right person to contact the artist? Thank you in advance for the collaboration.
enter new comment
Please, be adviced that you are entering your text into a database, not into a social network! By entering a comment, you add to the database. We much appreciate comments making us aware of errors or deficiencies.